Ice and fire: the road from "made in China" to "smart made in China"
in the 1990s, thanks to the environment of scarce resources and the east wind of policies, the manufacturing industry generally did not suffer from fatigue damage; Received a huge demographic dividend. Although the premium ability is not high, it still earns a lot of profits. Moreover, the terrible thing about labor-intensive enterprises is that they can extract infinite residual value from every employee. After multiplying the unit profit by the huge amount, the total profit is still considerableSince the 21st century, China's manufacturing industry has been mainly driven by factors, especially demographic dividend and investment. Especially after China's accession to the WTO, under the attraction of China's policy of actively introducing foreign capital and the strategic promotion of China's Asia Pacific market, a large number of foreign capital poured into China, forming tens of thousands of foreign-funded and joint venture manufacturing enterprises, as well as Taiwan funded and Hong Kong funded manufacturing enterprises
in the past, relying on the demographic dividend and environmental resources, made in China came to the forefront of the world with the symbol of "made in China", creating a short-term glory
however, at the same time, it gave up the ability of brand premium, relied on cost control and self abuse to improve efficiency to serve the orders of developed countries, and missed the best opportunity for transformation. Since 2014, China's GDP growth has slowed down, from the past high-speed growth to the new normal of medium and high-speed growth. Affected by various internal factors and external pressures, China's manufacturing industry has also begun to enter the new normal of manufacturing
the dividend of China's manufacturing industry has faded and the tide of closures is frequent.
the United States has started the manufacturing industry return plan, and Germany has also proposed that industry 4.0 is ready to fully recover the manufacturing industry. However, China is faced with the plight of the disappearance of the demographic dividend, frequent bankruptcies and the withdrawal of foreign capital
the withdrawal of foreign capital has put all industrial chains in danger. In particular, the withdrawal of some top foreign-funded enterprises has led to the loss of hundreds of thousands of well paid jobs to Southeast Asia and other places. At present, the advantages of domestic manufacturing industry are not so obvious. Land costs are rising, labor costs continue to rise, and taxes are increasing; And the market is saturated and shrinking, which makes the competition more intense, and the shipping price is falling. Many manufacturers are making orders at a loss and are struggling. If the company can not maintain its profits, it will not be able to survive at a loss forever. It will either close down or move to the mainland or abroad
in February 2015, Microsoft planned to shut down Nokia Dongguan factory before the Spring Festival. The factory is rapidly shipping production equipment to Vietnam. Meanwhile, Microsoft and Nokia factories in Beijing will be shut down simultaneously. The Nokia factories in Dongguan and Beijing laid off a total of 9000 employees. In the first half of the year, jinrenbao and Samsung accelerated their withdrawal, Flextronics went to the United States to set up factories, and Foxconn made a large-scale march into India. The wave of manufacturing industry closures spreading from the Yangtze River Delta to the Pearl River Delta continues...
manufacturing enterprises in the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta are clustered, and the production level and manufacturing scale are mixed. According to the law of market survival, it is not new that dozens of enterprises close down every year. However, the successive enterprise closures in major manufacturing provinces are different from the past. The reasons for the enterprise closures are worth pondering
let's take a look at the problems faced by China's manufacturing industry:
on the one hand, in recent years, we can see that China's manufacturing industry is facing double pressures: the internal human and operating costs continue to rise, the external economic situation continues to slump, the trade data is getting worse, the low-end manufacturing industry is facing low-cost competition from Southeast Asia and developing economies, and the high-end manufacturing industry needs to resist the impact of developed countries
on the other hand, the manufacturing giants have shifted from the real world to the virtual, and switched to real estate or financial projects. As early as 2010, TCL signed an agreement with Wantong real estate to open up a new direction and mode for industrial real estate development by taking advantage of the unique advantages of both sides in real estate development and industrial land. TCL invested in "leverage" in the past few years, which is enough for them to rely on land development for a "stable" life in the next few years
the road from "made in China" to "smart manufacturing in China" in 2015, the State Council issued the "made in China 2025" strategy, which is the first ten-year action program for the Chinese government to implement the manufacturing power strategy. Improving innovation capacity and breaking through intelligent manufacturing have become the top priority
intelligent manufacturing, sharing economy, new technologies and new models are emerging, gradually promoting the innovation among industries and regions, and making China's manufacturing industry begin to transform to China's intelligent manufacturing, but the transformation is not easy. Large enterprises can keep up with the market thanks to their resource advantages and innovation foundation
however, small and medium-sized enterprises have small scale, few funds, few personnel, weak technical level and limited resources available. In particular, the financial sector is full of chaos, shifting from real to virtual. A large number of funds flow into real estate and some high return financial investment fields, and private investment is weak. At the same time, banks adjust credit policies due to de productivity and de leverage, which limits the cash flow of enterprises
for manufacturing enterprises, if they want to achieve industrial upgrading, their internal organization adjustment and resource allocation cannot be separated from the promotion of the financial market
revision results of Rockwell hardness tester
however, the problem of "difficult and expensive loans" for small and medium-sized enterprises has been a long-standing problem that has plagued the development of enterprises for many years. Large state-owned banks, which occupy the main deposit resources, are making great efforts to pursue central enterprises or high-end large customers. They would rather make less or no money than give the eight frequent failures of the loan pile impact tester to large state-owned enterprises. In particular, under the economic downturn in the past two years, the non-performing loans of banks have increased rapidly, which has significantly raised the threshold of bank risk management, More primitive risk prevention measures, such as strengthening the third-party guarantee of powerful enterprises or full effective asset mortgage, have been widely adopted, which has greatly increased the loan difficulty of general manufacturing enterprises, especially small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises; However, the small and medium-sized joint-stock banks not only guarantee in the same way as large banks, but also generally raise the loan price by 20%~30% on the basis of the benchmark interest rate, and the financial cost remains high
in addition, the relatively high cost of energy, logistics and other factors in China has led to the poor operation of small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises under the condition of full competition
making finance return to entity financial leasing will have great potential in China's smart manufacturing.
small and medium-sized enterprises must speed up the realization of "made in China" to "made in China" through technological innovation and equipment updating. In recent years, many enterprises have also begun to try to "replace people with machines" and information systems to explore the path of intelligent manufacturing. However, the cost of equipment updating, especially intelligent equipment, is too large for small and medium-sized enterprises, so that many small and medium-sized enterprises dare not wade into the water
to serve the real economy, we must first solve the financing difficulties of small and medium-sized enterprises, especially small and micro enterprises. The main reason for the financing difficulties of small and medium-sized enterprises is that China's financial industry is not developed enough and the system is not perfect. First, the types of financial institutions are not rich enough; Second, the financial business is not rich enough; Third, financial products are not rich enough
in the view of industry insiders, the role of financial leasing in the transformation and upgrading of manufacturing industry and small and medium-sized enterprises will be irreplaceable, and the combination of the two is an inevitable trend of historical development
financial leasing has the unique attribute of "financing + financing" and is closely connected with the real economy and physical assets. It is the most effective financial form to serve the real economy
at present, financial leasing has become one of the main financing means for enterprises to update equipment, known as "sunrise industry". With the increase of the scale and proportion of financial leasing in China's economic life, its position in China's economic development strategy has been unprecedentedly improved. However, compared with developed countries, the scale of China's financial leasing market is still small, and the management level needs to be further improved compared with mature markets, which is far from fully meeting the actual needs of economic development
in fact, in addition to the characteristics of low threshold and flexible financing methods, financial leasing also has the characteristics of long financing period, flexible repayment methods and low pressure, which is very suitable for small and medium-sized enterprises to solve their own financing problems. Especially in terms of repayment, small and medium-sized light alloy will damage their appearance. Enterprises can choose to repay by installments according to their own conditions, which greatly reduces the short-term capital pressure and prevents the fracture of the fragile capital chain of small and medium-sized enterprises
secondly, financial leasing is a new financial industry integrating financing and financing, trade and technological upgrading. The combination of financing and financing makes it possible for enterprises to introduce equipment in the case of capital shortage, which can promote the growth of enterprise equipment investment, equipment "going global" and international production capacity cooperation
China's manufacturing industry is undergoing the pains of industrial transformation. How can finance return to entities and serve them? How to help enterprises improve efficiency and create new value points