Development of preservation, storage and transport

2022-08-11
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Development of preservation, storage and transportation technology of agricultural products

I. raising problems

China is the largest country with the largest population and the largest agricultural country. Agricultural production occupies an extremely important position in China's economy and society. However, as the preservation, packaging and storage of agricultural products have become a hot topic of research in recent years, the transportation technology is seriously lagging behind, and the added value of products is not high, resulting in increased agricultural production. Qingdao, which has agricultural tools such as Haier, Hisense and other well-known enterprises, had a GDP of more than twice that of Zibo in the first half of 2016, but did not increase its income. This phenomenon has seriously troubled the development of rural economy

according to statistics, nearly 10% of the annual grain output has been wiped out due to pests and mildew; 25% of fruits and vegetables are lost in vain due to decay. Guangdong, Guangdong, Yunnan, Fujian, Sichuan, Hainan and other provinces and regions transport more than 100000 wagons of fruits and vegetables to the north every year. Due to poor packaging and lack of fresh-keeping treatment, the annual decay loss is about 30000 wagons. Grapes and Hami melon are two high-quality fruits in Xinjiang. Due to the insufficient transportation capacity of cold storage and preservation, 600000 tons of Hami melon can only be exported to 80000 tons, and a large number of sweet grapes cannot be sold to other regions in China, let alone overseas markets, because of poor preservation. At present, the annual output of apple in China is more than 20million tons, but the income of fruit farmers has not increased in proportion to the surge in output. It is also a new red star apple (commonly known as snake fruit), which begins to soften about one month after harvest in China, while the snake fruit in the United States is still fresh and crisp until the next spring. All these are numerous

it can be said that we have done everything we can to increase agricultural production, but we have not paid enough attention to and invested too little in impairment, preservation and appreciation. The loss rate of grain storage in developed countries is less than 1%, and the loss rate of fruits and vegetables is less than 5%. If we use fresh-keeping technology to reduce the storage loss rate of agricultural products to the level of developed countries, we can reduce the loss of more than 45 billion kilograms of grain, 13 billion kilograms of fruits and 50 billion kilograms of vegetables every year, reduce the loss by about 150 billion yuan, and increase the per capita income of farmers by 170 yuan. With the further development of agriculture, seasonal surplus and regional surplus will become more and more serious, especially as China's accession to the WTO is approaching. In order to revise some contents and terms, increase the competitiveness of China's agriculture and improve farmers' income, the development and utilization of agricultural products preservation, storage and transportation technology is urgent

II. The necessity of the development and utilization of fresh-keeping, storage and transportation technologies of agricultural products

1. Improve the added value of agricultural products

with the adjustment of the national agricultural industrial structure, the planting area of fruits and pollution-free vegetables is expanding, and the output is also increasing. In terms of quality, the quality of some fruit and vegetable products has reached or exceeded that of similar foreign products, but the post harvest processing link, especially the preservation link, is far behind foreign products, and the price difference between imported fruits and vegetables is also very wide. For example, the sales price of sweet oranges imported from the United States is 20-30 yuan/kg in the market. The quality of high-quality navel oranges in the Three Gorges of the Yangtze River in China is not inferior to those in the United States, but they can only be sold for 4-5 yuan/kg in the market. Such a big gap, the problem is mainly due to postpartum treatment. After picking, American sweet oranges are sorted, graded, sterilized, fresh-keeping treated, packaged, and advanced controlled atmosphere cold storage technology is used in transportation. After these means, the quality of the products not only rises to a great level, but also extends the storage life of the products. Even if they are placed on the shelf for a long time, the appearance of the products is not much different from that of picking, which is bound to be of high quality and high price. Compared with foreign countries, the level of agricultural modernization in China is still low. Although the production technology has been significantly improved and some products are of good quality, after picking, they enter the market without any treatment. Such products are only of high quality and low price. More than 70% of the output value of agricultural products in developed countries is achieved through preservation, storage, transportation and processing. The output value of agricultural products processed after preservation, storage, transportation and processing in the United States is 3.7 times that of primary agricultural products. As far as the preservation of agricultural products is concerned, relevant data show that advanced preservation technology can bring huge economic benefits. For example, the net value-added of agricultural products picked for 10 yuan in the United States through packaging and preservation treatment is 3.7 yuan, while that in Japan is 2.3 yuan, while that in China is only 0.48 yuan, which shows the large gap

2. Extend the shelf life of agricultural products

in order to extend the shelf life of agricultural products in China, they are often harvested before maturity, such as mango and litchi, which are only 7-8 mature, which greatly affects the quality of products. Because it can not effectively solve the problem of preservation, storage and transportation, it also has a great impact on the quality in the process of transportation and marketing. A Chinese went to the United Arab Emirates for an interview. In his spare time, he went to the supermarket and found that the shelves were full of fruits and vegetables from nearly 30 countries, including seasonal fruits and vegetables from China. There are many kinds of apples, including apples from the United States, France, South Africa, Australia, Spain and other countries. Among them, China's Red Fuji is "more expensive than others", and the price per kilogram is 6.5 dirhams (1 dirhams is about 2.3 yuan). Although the price is not cheap, buyers are still quite enthusiastic. When I went to the same supermarket a week later, I was surprised to find that the price of Chinese Red Fuji was one Dirham lower than that of American red apple. The reason is that the preservation technology in China is inferior, and the luster of apples has decreased, while the luster of American apples is still fresh. Other fruits in China, such as Yali, nectarine and kiwi, sometimes appear in the fruit market, but they all rot and deteriorate soon, making it difficult for fruit traders to operate. The same is true in the domestic market. The vast majority of food, fruits, and pollution-free vegetables enter the market without fresh-keeping treatment, resulting in short shelf life, quality decline, and even rot and deterioration of products, causing great economic losses to enterprises and farmers

3. Improve the competitiveness of China's agricultural products after China's entry into the WTO, promote the export of agricultural products to earn foreign exchange, increase production and income

according to the analysis of relevant domestic experts, seven major industries will be impacted after China's entry into the World Trade Organization, of which agricultural products will rank second. According to the signed agricultural agreement, China's tariffs on agricultural products, which are as high as 45%, will be reduced by 10% - 12% according to different types before 2004. By 2004, the average tariffs on agricultural products will be reduced to 17%, and the tariffs on key agricultural products will be reduced to 14.5%. A large number of foreign high-quality agricultural products have poured into the domestic market, which will be a fatal blow to domestic agricultural products that are preserved in the original way. There is an urgent need to improve the level of preservation, storage and transportation of agricultural products after delivery. Only in this way, can our agricultural products have certain competitiveness in the international market, and can our agricultural products be invincible in the international market

4. Promote the construction of China's ecological agriculture industrialization

the situation of ecological environment deterioration in China has been very serious, and the industrialization of ecological agriculture is the inevitable choice for China's agriculture. After returning farmland, planting famous and high-quality fruit trees according to local conditions is a big way out, so China's fruit forests will continue to increase and the output will continue to expand. In addition to planting famous, special and high-quality products, the key is the market problem, and the central link is the preservation, storage, transportation and processing of agricultural products. Therefore, only after the preservation, storage and transportation of agricultural products are solved, can the industrialization of ecological agriculture become a reality

III. The current situation of preservation, storage and transportation of agricultural products in China

the research on Preservation Technology in China started relatively late, and chemical preservation, storage technology and products were introduced only in the 1970s. In the mid-1980s, Deng Xiaoping, the chief designer of reform and opening up, had recognized the importance of fresh-keeping technology of agricultural products and had made instructions to attach importance to fresh-keeping technology of agricultural products (archives of Beijing Research Institute of chemical industry). In this way, Beijing Research Institute of chemical industry, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences and other scientific research institutions began to research and tackle key problems. After nearly 20 years, the domestic fresh-keeping technology has made remarkable progress and achievements. Individual research institutions have also made major breakthroughs in the research of fresh-keeping technology. For example, the "litchi preservation, storage and transportation technology" researched and developed by South China Agricultural University, the CFW fruit wax technology of Beijing Research Institute of chemical industry, and the refrigeration technology of the Chinese Academy of agricultural sciences are all domestic initiatives and at the leading level in the world. However, due to many reasons, such as the imperfect scientific research and promotion system, it is difficult to transform technology, and many advanced technologies sleep in the archives. According to the survey, at present, the number of fruit sorting and fresh-keeping treatment in China is only equivalent to 5% of the total output. It can be said that the development and application of preservation, storage and transportation technology of agricultural products in China is only in its infancy, but its importance has been highlighted. Some large domestic agricultural enterprises have also noticed the seriousness, urgency and huge business opportunities of this problem, and have been trying to involve this industry in order to solve the problem of preserving agricultural products

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